How High Can You Jump On Pluto

What If The Sun Disappeared

Hey, Vsauce. Michael here. Gravity is a property of matter, anythingwith mass. This includes the Moon, Earth, Jupiter, the Sun, and even you your body.In fact, if you kinda like somebody, have them stand 34 of a millimeter away from you.At that distance, cumulatively, every atom in your body and every atom in their bodywill draw you two together with the same gravitational force that the Sun is exerting on you right now. Of course, we don't feel either of those forcesbecause compared to the gravitational influence of the Earth, they are basically nothing.You don't need to concern yourself with the gravitational

attraction between you and someone you'rehugging, or, your individual body and the Sun, 150 million kilometres away.In fact, the Sun may as well not exist. What if the Sun disappearedé Well, to be sure, it's not going to happen.The Sun will die billions of years from now by expanding, boiling off our oceansand swallowing the Earth whole. The Sun is not going to simply disappear.Matter and energy don't vanish. Of course, matter can quantum tunnel to different locations,but on the scale of the Sun there is not enough time in the lifetime of millions andbillions of universes for such a probability

to even be worth discussing. But let's discuss it anyway, as a thoughtexperiment to determine how the Earth would get along with no Sun.What will the Earth do and what can it do aloneé At the exact moment that the Sun disappeared,we would have no idea. Because it takes light from the Sun 8 minutes and 20 seconds toreach Earth. So, for a little over 8 minutes after the Sun disappeared, we would have noidea. Once we did, confusion and mass panic would, most likely, ensue. The Sun's gravitational grasp on our planetwould also take 8 minutes and 20 seconds to

end. This is because gravity waves propagateat the speed of light. So, the very moment we saw our Sun disappear, we would also loseits gravitational influence and Earth would fly out in a straight line,tangent to wherever it was in its orbit. The finite speed of light and gravity meanthat as panic and fear spread across the Earth at the loss of our Sun, we could still, fora while, look up into the sky and see our planetary buddies, further out, continuing to operateas if nothing had happened. For instance, Jupiter would continue orbitingand reflecting light from a Sun that no longer existed for about 30 minutes after the Earthalready knew the Sun was gone. And, depending

on where Jupiter was in its orbit, it wouldtake another 30 minutes to an hour for us to watch the reflected light of Jupiter snuff out. With no moonlight or sunlight, the universeitself would be our only source of visible light from space. In 2004, Abdul Ahad calculated that the MilkyWay contributes about as much light as 1300th of a full Moon. So there would be enough lightfrom space for us to see around a bit. But, of course, electricity and fossil fuels wouldstill be usable for a while. So, cities and towns could continue to be lit by manmadesources, just like a typical night; except,

it would be night everywhere. Photosynthesis would stop immediately, andthis is huge. I had a great discussion about this tutorial with Henry from MinutePhysics,and the new channel MinuteEarth. If you're not subscribed to MinuteEarth, you definitely should be. In one of his episodes there, he mentionsthat 99.9% of the natural productivity on Earth is done by photosynthesis, which requiresthe Sun. Without the Sun, plants would no longer be able to inhale carbon dioxide andexhale lifesustaining oxygen. But, don't worry. Collectively, all of ushumans, all 7 billion of us, breathe in about

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